Archive for March, 2009

Breast Cancer: Surgical Treatment

The main treatment of breast cancer is surgical treatment. Surgery is the mainstay of primary breast cancer in all cases. There are many forms of surgery which are done for treatment of breast cancer. Radical mastectomy or modified radical mastectomy is removal of the breast along with the breast tumor and the normal tissue. But these days’ breast-conserving surgeries are preferred.

Breast-conserving treatments (or surgery), consisting of the removal of the primary tumor by lumpectomy (removal of lump or the tumor) with or without giving radiotherapy to the breast. The survival after breast-conserving treatments is as good as that of radical mastectomy or modified radical mastectomy (or some times give better result) with or without radiotherapy. If radiotherapy is given after breast-conserving surgery the chances of recurrence of breast cancer is greatly reduced. But there is always a possibility of recurrence after breast-conserving treatment but the overall 10 year survival rate is at least as good as that after more radical surgery. Postoperative radiation therapy to regional nodes following mastectomy (Radical mastectomy or modified radical mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery) is also associated with an improvement in survival. Since radiotherapy can reduce the rate of local or regional recurrence, it is strongly recommended following mastectomy for women with high-risk primary tumors.

At present, nearly one third of women in the United States are managed by lumpectomy (breast-conserving surgery). Breast-conserving surgery is not suitable for all patients. It is not suitable for tumors more than 5 cm (or for smaller tumors if the breast is small), for tumors involving the nipple and areola complex; for tumors with extensive intraductal disease involving multiple quadrants of the breast, for women with a history of collagen-vascular disease. It is also not suitable for women who do not have the motivation for breast conservation or who do not have access to radiotherapy. But the group who are not suitable for breast-conserving treatments do not constitute as the number of radical (mastectomy) treatment done. So many women still undergo mastectomy, who could safely avoid this procedure and probably would if appropriately counseled.

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Posted by - March 29, 2009 at 12:06 pm

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Green Tea: the Healthy Drink

There are many healthy drinks that are available to us. Green tea is one such healthy drink. Green tea is being consumed for centuries in the countries like China and Japan, where it originated. Green tea that is made from natural juices and ingredients are better than other products. Green tea can contain high concentration of caffeine, but if you want to avoid green tea with high caffeine you have the option of decaffeinated tea. Another advantage of decaffeinated green tea is addition of other healthy ingredients like ginseng, guarana, and some other natural energizers. This decaffeinated green tea is much healthier than other green tea, because you may have feeling of crush that is due to excess caffeine.

Green tea is like regular black tea and it comes from leaves of the Camellia Sinesis plant. Immediately after plucking the tea leaves are steamed, or baked to prepare green tea. As it is not fermented like black tea, the end product is very similar to natural tea leaf.

The benefits of green tea beverage can be many and include high concentration of antioxidant, improves metabolism of body etc. to name a few. The ingredients (ginseng, guarana etc.) added to decaffeinated green tea also provide health benefits on their own along with that of the green tea. Presence of high concentration of antioxidants helps in control of blood sugar and blood cholesterol other than the main function of antioxidant i.e. protection against cancer (breast, stomach, and skin cancers and many more cancers).  

How much we know about green tea is not enough. To learn more about green tea, there is requirement of more research on the subject of green tea and its advantages. More research is being done for knowing more about green tea and we hope many interesting things will be known in near future.

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Posted by - March 29, 2009 at 12:37 am

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Bowtrol: the Colon Cleanser

Cleansing of our systems (mainly gastrointestinal system) is very important. We need to cleanse our gastrointestinal system to get rid of toxins that may accumulate in the intestine. Cleansing colon has become a controversial subject. There are hundreds of products available in the market which claims to do the ob of colon cleansing. In true sense the colon cleansing method is natural and no pharmacological ingredient is used in the products of colon cleansing agents. The most important ingredient used in good colon cleansing product is high amount of dietary fiber. Fibers (cellulose, methylcellulose etc.) are the indigestible parts of the natural foods and present in all types of natural foods of plant origin in varying quantity. The consumption of dietary fiber is very much essential at regular basis to keep our bowel healthy and functional. Due to consumption of refined foods with little or no fiber in it the average person of an industrialized country consumes very little dietary fiber and suffers from gastrointestinal problems like constipation.

Bowtrol colon cleansing system is a good quality colon cleansing product. It helps our body to get rid of harmful toxins that may accumulate in our body. Sometimes our body can not remove all the foods after digestion and very little amount may remain in the intestine. If small particles remain in our body and builds up for long duration and our body fails to get rid of these waste products properly, it may cause many health problems. Bowtrol colon cleansing system can break down these accumulated toxins and expel them efficiently. The ingredients of Bowtrol are Cascara Sagrada (a laxative, derived from natural bark), garlic extract (stimulates the nervous system and improve immunity), ulmus rubra (removes irritation of mucus membrane), Turkey rhubarb (cleanser of intestinal lymph system) and aloe.

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Posted by - March 28, 2009 at 12:57 pm

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Acai Berry: a Review

Acai berry is one of the best food discoveries of modern time. The acai berry is rightly called super-food as it contains antioxidants and other essential nutrients in large concentrations. Acai berry has the highest concentration of antioxidants (mainly anthocyanins) in nature. No other food or food supplement can rival acai berry in terms of antioxidant properties.

Antioxidants are chemicals which readily take up free electrons that roam around. These free electrons are called free radicals (any chemical with a spare electron to donate to any chemical can also be called a free radical). These free electrons are like vagabonds in society (who can harm society any time) and can cause harm to our body anytime. These free radicals are blamed as the main cause of cancer in humans. These free electrons can damage the DNA of a cell and can cause mutation in it and thereby causing cancer. Antioxidants are the chemical substances which can readily take up free electrons that are present in our body system and also can accept the free electrons that may be given by certain chemicals with a spare electron for donation.

There are many websites and blogs in the internet which are dedicated to the good qualities of acai berry and many have given excellent acai berry reviews. While reading an acai berry reviews one should ideally look for neutral reviews, which are giving the merits as well as demerits of acai berry in their reviews. There are some negative things about acai berry and one of the commonest is its claim of doing more than it actually can. The claims of acai berry as an excellent food supplement for weight reduction may not be correct if the instructions re not followed properly.        

 

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Posted by - March 28, 2009 at 11:24 am

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Rowing Machines for Exercise

Rowing machines are used commonly for exercise by many professional athletes as well as health and fitness conscious people. Working (or exercising) in rowing machine is an excellent exercise and it is very much beneficial to the general health and well being of the body as it provides a total workout for the body. The stamina rowing machines are designed to track speed and distance covered, total calories burned during exercise, total time spent for doing exercise and many more. All these facilities in the stamina rowing machines can be used for motivating the user of these machines to keep doing exercise and it can be used to target the goal of your fitness to be achieved.

Motivation for exercise is very important for continuation, as it is seen that it is easier to start doing exercise, but it is not possible to keep it going for large number of people due to lack of proper motivation. The aerobic exercise is best for keeping the body fit and healthy, but due to lack of motivation very few people can keep doing aerobic exercise. The advantage of aerobic exercise is not only for general health and well being but it has advantage of almost no financial cost as aerobic exercise does not need practically any equipment. But due to lack of motivation it is not done by maximum people.

Rowing machine is designed for comfort so that the training session can be continued for a prolonged period of time. The comfort of exercise can make it easy for a workout and it can be done even if your home does not have enough space, as it is so designed that it can be placed in a very small space.

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Posted by - March 27, 2009 at 4:48 pm

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Non Typhoid Salmonella Infection: Treatment

Treatment of non typhoid Salmonella infection is different from typhoid infection due to Salmonella Typhi. In the treatment of non typhoid Salmonella infection antibiotic should not be used routinely as used in typhoid. Antibiotics should only be used if required, as most of the infections of non typhoid Salmonella are self limiting type and the duration of diarrhea and fever are not much affected by use of antibiotics. Additionally antibiotic therapy can increase relapse of the infection and also prolong the duration of gastrointestinal carrier state.

The main treatment should be aimed at correcting dehydration that may arise due to prolonged diarrhea, by fluid and electrolyte replacement.

Preemptive antibiotic treatment is required in case of neonates (up to 3 months of age), persons with age of more than 50 years with suspected atherosclerosis, patients with immunosuppression, cardiac valvular disease, endovascular abnormalities, significant joint disease etc. The preemptive treatment of non typhoid Salmonella infection should be done by oral or intra venous (IV) administration of antibiotics (Ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice a day; Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 160/800 mg twice a day; Ceftriaxone 2000 mg/day; Amoxicillin 100 mg three times a day or Ampicillin 2000 mg every 4 hourly) for 2 to 3 days (48 to 72 hours) or till fever subsides. If patient is immunocompromised treatment may have to be continued for 1 to 2 weeks. Due to high incidences of antibiotic resistance, a third generation cephalosporin (Ceftriaxone) antibiotic or a fluoroquinolone (Ciprofloxacin) should be included in the empirical therapy for life-threatening NTS bacteremia or focal NTS infection. If a patient is suffering from non typhoid Salmonella infection with bacteremia (bacteria in blood) and AIDS, he/she should be treated for 1 to 2 weeks of intravenous antibiotics and followed by 4 weeks of treatment with oral Ciprofloxacin. If there is relapse of the infection, after the therapy (in AIDS patients) than the patient should be given long term suppressive therapy with a fluoroquinolone or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (after doing culture and sensitivity test).

If patient has endocarditis or arteritis the treatment is by intravenous beta-lactum antibiotics like ceftriaxone or ampicillin. Surgical intervention is recommended where required.

For extraintestinal nonvascular non typhoid Salmonella infections, a 2 to 4 weeks course of antibiotic therapy (depending on the infection site) is recommended. In case of chronic osteomyelitis, abscess, urinary infection or hepatobiliary (liver and gall bladder) infection associated with anatomic abnormalities, surgical resection or drainage may be required in addition to prolonged antibiotic therapy for eradication of infection.    

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Posted by - March 14, 2009 at 3:44 pm

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Typhoid Fever: Treatment

Typhoid fever or enteric fever is a systemic disease characterized by fever and abdominal pain and caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi. The disease is called typhoid because of its similarity to typhus. But it is a separate entity (proved in 1800 AD) and later (in 1869 AD) it was proposed to be named as enteric fever as the site of infection is intestine. But both the names are still used interchangeably.ID-100128777
If typhoid is treated promptly with appropriate antibiotic typhoid can be cured successfully and severe complications can be prevented. The enactment of Obama care will make treatment much more convenient. The mortality due to typhoid is less than 1% if treated appropriately and in time. The choice of antibiotic depends on susceptibility of the organism and region. For drug susceptible typhoid fever the treatment of choice is fluoroquinolone like ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin, with a cure rate of more than 98% and relapse rate of less than 2%. The most extensively used and data available is the ciprofloxacin (given at the dose of 500 mg twice a day for 5 to 7 days). Short course with ofloxacin is also equally successful in ifection due to nalidixic acid susceptible strains. But the increased incidence of nalidixic acid resistant (NAR) S. Typhi in Asia, may be due to widespread availability of fluoroquinolones over the counter has made it difficult to use these drugs as first line drug.

Patients infected with NAR  S. Typhi strains can be treated with ceftriaxone, azithromycin, or high dose ciprofloxacin. But use of high dose fluoroquinolone for NAR enteric fever is associated with delayed resolution of fever and high rates of fecal carriage during convalescence.

In case of multi drug resistant (MDR) typhoid fever including nalidixic acid resistant (NAR) and fluoroquinolone-resistant strains (as seen in Asia), third-generation cephalosporins like ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and (oral) cefixime are effective. These drugs can clear fever in about 1 week, with failure rates of approximately 5% to 10%, fecal carriage rates of less than 3%, and relapse rates of 3% to 6%. Azothromycin (1gm/day orally for 5 days) is another drug which can be used in MDR typhoid fever. First and second generation cephalosporins as well as aminoglycosides are ineffective in treating clinical infections despite their effectiveness in killing Salmonella in vitro.

Patients with persistent vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal distension and abdominal pain should be hospitalized and given supportive care along with specific antibiotic. Treatment should be continued for 10 days or at least 5 days after fever subsides.

Approximately 1% to 5 % of patients become carriers of typhoid (Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi). These carriers of typhoid can be treated with appropriate antibiotic for 4-6 weeks. Treatment with oral amoxicillin, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), ciprofloxacin, or norfloxacin is approximately 80% effective in eradicating chronic carrier state in case of susceptible organisms. But if there is an anatomical or other abnormality like bile stone or kidney stone, to eradicate carrier state surgical correction is required.

 

 

Image courtesy of [Baitong333] at FreeDigitalPhotos.net

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Posted by - March 11, 2009 at 4:55 pm

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Try taking a fiber supplement as a great way to cleanse and detoxify your colon. Cleansing with fiber can help take off the extra weight associated with impacted wastes and toxins in the bowels. Cleanse with fiber to jump start your health.

Posted by - March 4, 2009 at 12:03 am

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Diabetic Neuropathy: Treatment

Diabetic neuropathy can not be treated well. Its treatment is not satisfactory. So the main aim of treatment of diabetic neuropathy is control of blood sugar aggressively. But despite good control of blood sugar there may not be any improvement of diabetic neuropathy symptoms. Even the control of blood glucose may be problematic, as diabetic neuropathy can make a diabetic patient less aware of his/her hypoglycemia, thereby prolonging the hypoglycemic episodes and making the patient more prone to effects of hypoglycemia.

There may be loss of sensation in the feet and this can place the patient at risk of ulceration of feet and its sequalae. If patient is having some signs or symptoms of neuropathy, he should examine the feet daily and take precautions like wearing footwear regularly to prevent ulceration and calluses in the feet. Patient education for prevention of injury or ulceration of feet is of paramount importance in the management of diabetic neuropathy. If there is any foot deformity a podiatrist should be consulted.     

Risk factors of neuropathy should also be treated. Common risk factors of neuropathy are hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia. Neurotoxins like alcohol should be avoided. Stopping of smoking, supplementation of possible deficiency of vitamins like folic acid and vitamin B12 and symptomatic treatment is the mainstay of treatment of diabetic neuropathy.

Chronic and painful diabetic nephropathy is very difficult to treat, but anti depressants (selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors such as duloxetine or tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline, desipramine, nortriptyline, imipramine) or anticonvulsants (gabapentin, pregabalin, carbamazepine, lamotrigine) may be useful. USFDA has approved duloxetine and pregabalin for treatment of pain associated with diabetic neuropathy. But due to lack of study on these drugs, it is recommended that the treatment of neuropathic pain should be started with tricyclic antidepressant and switching if there is no response or if side effects develop.

The patient of diabetic neuropathy may require to be referred to a pain management center. Pain of acute diabetic neuropathy may resolve over time as there is progressive neuronal damage from diabetes and the medications can be withdrawn.

Treatment of orthostatic hypotension secondary to autonomic neuropathy is also difficult. Many drugs like fludrocortisone, midodrine, clonidine, octreotide, and yohimbine are used with limited success and more side effects for this purpose. Nonpharmacologic maneuvers like adequate salt intake, avoidance of dehydration, avoidance of diuretics, and support to lower extremity etc. may provide some relief from pain due to diabetic neuropathy.

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Posted by - March 3, 2009 at 3:47 pm

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Acai Berry Select

Acai berry is found naturally in the flood plains, rain forests and swamps in the Amazon River basin of Brazil. There are many acai berry products available in the market and they are mostly used as food supplement for weight loss and also for making up the energy requirement in the body. Acai berry select is one of the most popular acai berry product available in the market these days. Acai berry select is made from natural acai berry and is very safe for the consumption of general public as there are practically no side effects seen with these products. 

Acai berry select is one of the most amazing and weight loss products available in the market. Acai berry select can not only reduce your weight to normal, it can also keep you energized and refreshed throughout the day. Acai berry select can reduce your body weight as much as 20 kilos in a month. In the busy life of present days, nobody wants to start their day with a tired feeling and also nobody wants to get tire during working hours as well as after the working hours. Every body wants to feel refreshed and full of energy and vitality. If you want these health benefits for yourself you should go for acai berry select and take it regularly for maintaining your health and well being.

Acai berry select and also other products of acai berry can boost your metabolism and flush out the toxins and other wastes from your body. And it also does not make you feel tired (that is why acai berry select can be used as energy booster). Acai berry products like acai berry select has now become number one superfood in many countries including America.     

 

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Posted by - March 1, 2009 at 2:30 pm

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