Archive for September, 2009

How Common are STDs?

Worldwide it is estimated that most adults acquire at least one STI in their lifetime. Throughout the world sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or STIs (sexually transmitted infections) rank among the most common infections.Certain STIs are distributed evenly throughout any society, e.g. are chlamydial infections, genital infections with HPV, genital herpes etc.

Some STIs are distributed among “core populations”. The ‘core populations’ include high rates of sexual partner change, some homosexual men, multiple concurrent sexual partners, highly connected sexual networks (involving prostitutes and their clients), users of illicit drugs (drug abusers especially crack cocaine, methamphetamine etc.). Examples of these “core populations” STIs are syphilis, gonorrhea, HIV infection, hepatitis B, chancroid etc.

At present more than 30 infections are there which can be classified under STDs (sexually transmitted diseases, sexually transmissible diseases with sexual mode as minor mode and sexually transmissible diseases). 90% of the worlds STIs (sexually transmitted infections) are seen in the developing countries where 75% of the world population resides. There are many factors for high numbers of STIs in the developing countries, like rural to urban migration, high population growth (especially high number of young adults), poverty, wars etc. which causes risky sexual behavior.

Generally three factors influence the rate of spread of STDs in a community. These factors are rate of sexual exposure of susceptible individuals to infectious (STDs) people, duration of infectivity (longer duration if not treated adequately) and efficiency of transmission of STDs per sexual exposure. So aim and efforts of preventing (and reducing) STDs should be to decrease the rate of sexual exposure of susceptible individuals to infected persons (by individual counseling), reduce duration of infectivity by early diagnosis and prompt curative or suppressive treatment and to reduce efficiency of transmission by use of barrier methods like condoms and safer sexual practices and recently through male circumcision (in selected cases).

Be the first to comment - What do you think?
Posted by - September 23, 2009 at 12:29 pm

Categories: Health Information   Tags:

The Common STDs

STDs or sexually transmitted diseases are pretty common throughout the world and it is estimated that most of the adults acquire at least one sexually transmitted disease in their life time. For example in United States alone more than 6 million people acquire new genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and worst is, most of these people who acquire genital human papillomavirus infection are at risk of developing genital neoplasm. From this one example it is not difficult to estimate how common STD is. In all societies of the world sexually transmitted diseases are among the most common infectious diseases.

There are more than 30 infections which are classified as predominantly sexually transmitted or as sexually transmissible (frequently). These are named below:

Transmitted predominantly by sexual intercourse in adults (name of the organism given in brackets):

Bacterial:

Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), syphilis (Treponema pallidum), lower genital tract infections in females and epididymitis in males (Chlamydia trachomatis), genital ulcers (Haemophilus ducreyi), urethritis in males (Ureaplasma urealyticum), genital ulcers (Calymmatobacterium granulomatis).  

Viral:

AIDS (HIV or human immune deficiency virus types 1 and 2), genital herpes (Herpes simplex virus type 2), Hepatitis B (Hepatitis B virus), genital and anal warts (Human papillomavirus), Molluscum contagiosum (Molluscum contagiosum virus), T cell leukemia (Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I).

Others:

Trichomonas vaginalis infection and pediculosis of pubic area (Phthirus pubis).

 

Sexual Transmission Repeatedly Described but Not the Predominant Mode (name of the organism given in brackets):

 

Bacterial:

Urethritis in males (Mycoplasma genitalium), bacterial vaginosis (Gardnerella vaginalis), (Mycoplasma hominis), (Group B Streptococcus), (Helicobacter cinaedi), (Helicobacter fennelliae).

Viral:

CMV or cytomegalovirus mononucleosis (Cytomegalovirus), lymphoma (Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II), hepatitis (Hepatitis C, D viruses), genital herpes (Herpes simplex virus type 1), infectious mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr virus).

Others:

Candidiasis (Candida albicans) and scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei).

Transmissible by sexual contacts (Oral-Fecal Exposure) mainly in Homosexual Men:

Bacterial:

Shigellosis (Shigella species) and Proctocolitis or enterocolitis (Campylobacter species).

Viral:

Hepatitis (Hepatitis A).  

Others:

Giardiasis (Giardia lamblia) and amebiasis (Entamoeba histolytica).

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...

Be the first to comment - What do you think?
Posted by - September 5, 2009 at 4:34 pm

Categories: Health Information   Tags: