Women’s Health

What are the Causes of Secondary Pathological Amenorrhea?

Amenorrhea is absence of menstruation in a woman. There are many causes of secondary pathological amenorrhea and they are listed below:

  1. Obstruction (acquired) to the lower genital tract -lower genital tract injury due to operation, chemical burns etc. which can lead to stenosis (narrowing) of cervix and rarely of vagina.
  2. Ovarian factors of secondary pathological amenorrhea:
  • Polycystic ovarian disease formerly known as Stein-Leventhal syndrome; hyperthecosis ovarii etc.
  • Ovarian failure or hypo hormonal amenorrhea.
  • Hyper hormonal amenorrhea-due to excess estrogen as seen in metropathia hemorrhagica and may be due to therapeutic use of hormone.
  • Ovarian destruction of ovaries by disease (rare cause), radiation or surgical removal of ovaries known as oophorectomy.
  • Premature menopause due to auto immune disease or due to ovarian resistance syndrome.
  • Masculinizing tumors of ovaries like arrhenoblastoma, adrenal like tumors, hillus cell tumor, masculinizing luteoma etc.
  • Hysterectomy or surgical removal of uterus.
  • Destruction of endometrium of uterus due to-genital tuberculosis, attachment due to excess and vigorous curettage after abortion, or due to intra cavity introduction of radium in uterus.
  • Basophil adenoma-Cushing’s disease.
  • Acidophil tumor- which produce gigantism and acromegaly.
  • Oral contraceptive pills and psychotropic drugs that cause hyperprolactinemia.
  • Pituitary failure due to cyst, post partum pituitary necrosis (Sheehan’s syndrome), chromophobe adenoma, Simmond’s disease etc.
  • Prolactinoma causing hormonal disturbance.
  • Psychogenic causes- anorexia nervosa, stress, pituitary shock, vigorous exercise, pseudocyesis etc.
  • Suppression of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) due to persistence of luteotropic hormone as seen in Chiari-Frommel syndrome. Read more…

Posted by - November 2, 2012 at 9:46 am

Categories: Women's Health   Tags:

What is Premenstrual Tension?

Some women experience certain premenstrual symptoms called premenstrual tension about 7-10 days before the start of menstrual bleeding. These premenstrual symptoms include irritability, malaise, lassitude, headache, gastrointestinal upset like constipation and spasm of colon, feeling of fullness of the breasts and abdomen, frequency of urination etc. There may also be feeling of congestion in the feet and face. In some women these symptoms become exaggerated and form a well marked psychosomatic disorder.

In some of the cases of premenstrual tension water retention can be demonstrated by an increase of body weight up to 5 kilos which is accompanied by pedal edema. This is more marked if the patient has history of phlebothrombosis. The fullness of breasts can be prominent symptom and can be accompanied by breast tenderness. On examination of breasts, there is hardness and lumpy feeling and there is also tenderness. Some women with premenstrual tension suffer from migraine headache which disappear if the woman become pregnant.

The cause or etiology of premenstrual tension is not clear. It is suggested (but not proved) that premenstrual tension may be due to excess production of estrogen and abnormal or disturbance in adrenal function, because there is always an increase of extra-cellular water throughout the body. This is because estrogen is recognized to cause water and sodium retention as seen in carcinoma of prostate, where there is excess production of estrogen. But presence of large amount of estrogen does not always produce water retention as seen in granulosa cell tumor. Adrenal cortical steroids and progesterone (progesterone containing oral contraceptive pills may are well known for their water retention properties) can also cause water retention, so it may not be always due to estrogen excess.

Posted by - July 23, 2012 at 12:27 am

Categories: Health Information, Women's Health   Tags:

Should you use Amberen for Menopause?

Menopause is a physiological process in a woman’s life and all women should be prepared to face it. Although menopause is a physiological process, a woman may encounter some medical problem during or around time of menopause (perimenopausal symptoms) and need to get it treated appropriately by concerned physicians. There are many treatment modalities for problems arising around time of menopause, such as prescription drug treatment, natural remedies for menopause etc. for perimenopasal symptoms.

Now the question is what type of treatment modality you should use. The choice should of course be yours, as you are the one who require treatment and you are the best judge to decide which is best suited for you. But your decision should be based on your understanding of the topic (here topic is treatment of perimenopausal symptoms) and if you are less familiar with the topic you can learn the topic from the information available on the net. You can also get valuable information on general blogs on menopause and perimenopasal symptoms. So, if you are approaching your menopause (which is generally between age of 45 to 50 years in most women), it is high time you learn about menopause and medical problems that may arise due to menopause. Prepare yourself to face the inevitable and learn what treatment remedy you would like to get in case medical problem arise around menopause.

Amberen is a natural product for remedy of perimenopausal symptoms. It contains 100% natural ingredients and promise to bring relief to perimenopausal medical problems. The ingredients in Amberen are non hormonal but acts like hormone products. All the natural ingredients are on FDA’s approved Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) list and can be taken as safe for use. The treatment schedule for the product is to take it for three months and rest of three months and the cycle should be repeated. Due to interrupted schedule the cost of treatment is also reduced. The side effects of Amberen are mild headache, itching etc. although the manufacturer may claim to have no side effects.

There are also several natural ways to ease menopausal and perimenopausal symptoms such as use of vitamin E (800 IU/day for one month), use of natural progesterone cream, acupuncture and yoga, use of several herbal medications (other than Amberen) and regular exercise.  Herbs and other natural remedies are liked by many individuals and yo should also decide if you would like to use them. If not all you will certainly be benefited by use of some natural remedies.

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Posted by - March 30, 2011 at 12:02 pm

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Treatment of Premenstrual Tension

Premenstrual tension is as the name suggests certain symptoms (symptoms include headache, gastro-intestinal upset, irritability, lethargy, constipation, frequency of urination, fullness of breasts and some women experience eruption of acne or pimples) few days preceding menstruation. Treatment of premenstrual tension depends on elimination of extra-cellular fluid by a salt free diet and also by limiting water intake for about 10 days preceding menstruation. The treatment regimens used are:

  1. Use of diuretics like chlorthiazide 250 mg single dose or saline purgatives for 10-12 days starting at the onset of the premenstrual symptoms until menstruation starts is very successful.
  2. Use of methyl testosterone 10 mg daily in the last half of the menstrual cycle in certain cases of premenstrual tension and use of large dose of progesterone is useful. But use of progesterone and testosterone can not be explained scientifically because if the theory of water retention as causative factor for premenstrual tension is accepted, than progesterone and testosterone are contra-indicated. 
  3. For treatment symptoms like breast fullness or congestion adequate breast support and fluid restriction and elimination is required. For treating the premenstrual headache (migraine like) ergotamine tartrate in large dose of maximum 10 mg daily and care should be taken so that the dose does not exceed 10 mg per day otherwise there is danger of serious side effects like peripheral vascular spasm (which is seen with all alkaloid drugs).
  4. Many women with premenstrual tension suffer from acne on the body and face and also some skin eruption. Unfortunately the treatment of these conditions is unsatisfactory.

The most important factor in premenstrual tension is psychosomatic and it commonly affects women who are highly strung, introspective and neurotic. The headache or breast tenderness is exaggerated into an obsession of serious nervous disease or the woman becomes that she is having cancer. Due to all these the woman becomes short tempered and her family life and social life get disturbed. There may be tendency to suicide due to extreme depression. Study reveals that the female crime is higher during premenstrual phase of the period. These patients should be treated with patience and reassurance. Psychiatric consultation should be advised for these patients. 

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Posted by - April 20, 2009 at 4:12 pm

Categories: Disease Treatment, Women's Health   Tags:

Treatment of Spasmodic Dysmenorrhea

Treatment of spasmodic dysmenorrhea can be following:

  • Explanation of physiology of menstruation, education and reassurance to the patient are important aspects of management of spasmodic dysmenorrhea.
  • Proper nutrition with balanced nutritious diet, regular physical activity (spasmodic dysmenorrhea is more common among women with sedentary lifestyle), and proper treatment of constipation and adaptation of healthy lifestyle are very much essential in the treatment of spasmodic dysmenorrhea.
  • Initially spasmodic dysmenorrhea should be treated with simple analgesics (pain killers) like aspirin, paracetamol and codeine. Antispasmodics with atropine derivatives, Buscopan (hyoscine bromide), Baralgan etc. are also helpful. With any of the above a tranquillizer is beneficial.
  • Prostaglandin synthetase (inhibit the actions of prostaglandins) inhibitors are successful in the treatment of spasmodic dysmenorrhea. Prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors reduce the activity of myometrium of uterus and reduce pain. The drugs are mefanamic acid (500 mg daily), flufenamic acid (200 mg daily), indomethacin (50 mg daily), and naproxen sodium (200 mg daily) etc. The side effects of these drugs are headache, GIT manifestations like vomiting, reduced menstruation, blurring of vision, acute renal problem etc. due to prolonged use.
  • Endocrine treatment: oral contraceptive (steroids) pills can be of very good use in treatment of dysmenorrhea especially women who want contraception. The cure rate is very good, but the biggest disadvantage is the need of taking contraceptive pills for 21 days for the pain of few days (2 to 3 days) besides side effects and contraindications of oral pills.
  • Danazol a drug which suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis is sometimes helpful in treatment of dysmenorrhea.
  • Surgical dilatation of cervix is also useful in treatment of dysmenorrhea. But the relief may be temporary and excessive and forcible dilatation may lead to complications like premature labor, habitual abortion due to cervical incompetence in subsequent pregnancies. This is therefore not recommended.
  • Presacral sympathectomy is a surgical procedure that is reserved for patients for whom all other measures have failed. But this surgery does not guarantee benefits.
  • Hysterectomy is reserved for the cases for patients there is also pathology pelvis like fibroids and those who have completed their family and do not want any more children.
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Posted by - April 2, 2009 at 12:57 am

Categories: Disease Treatment, Women's Health   Tags: ,

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